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This website for Asia Society’s 2010 exhibition “Pilgrimage and Buddhist Art” has more information on the long history of Buddhist art throughout Asia.

This two-hour documentary film biography, The Buddha, narrated by Richard Gere and directed by the award-winning filmmaker David Grubin, was produced by PBS in conjunction with Asia Society’s exhibition “Pilgrimage and Buddhist Art.” This site provides further information on the documentary and on the life of the Buddha.

This concise essay within The Metropolitan Museum of Art Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History discusses the history of the Kushan Empire and its visual culture. Images of works of Gandharan art in the collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art are included.

This video discusses the Gandharan Buddha sculptures at Bamiyan, Afghanistan. The video is part of Asia Society’s Homeland Afghanistan site.


The UNESCO World Heritage website has detailed information about the Bamiyan Valley, and the ongoing effort to conserve the remains of the Gandharan Buddha sculptures. Numerous photographs are included.

Selected Bibliography

  • Behrendt, K. A. The Art of Gandhara in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.
  • Behrendt, Kurt A. and Pia Brancaccio. Gandhāran Buddhism: Archaeology, Art, Texts. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2006.
  • Czuma, Stanislaw J. Kushan Sculpture: Images from Early India. Cleveland: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1985.
  • Dallapiccola, A. L., and Stephanie Zingel-Ave Lallemant, eds. The Stupa, its Religious, Historical and Architectural Significance. Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1979.
  • Durrani, F. A., and Ihsan Ali, eds. The Glory that was Pakistan: 50 Years of Archaeological Research in Pakistan, A Photographic Exhibition, February–March 1998. Peshawar: Department of Archaeology, University of Peshwar and National Heritage Foundation, 1998.
  • Kim, Inchang. The Future Buddha Maitreya: An Iconological Study. Emerging Perceptions in Buddhist Studies 7. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld, 1997.
  • Luczanits, Christian. “The Bodhisattva with the Flask in Gandhāran Narrative Scenes.” In “In Honour of Maurizio Taddei,” edited by Callieri and Filigenzi. Special issue, East and West 55 no. 1–4 (2005).
  • Rhi, Juhyung. “From Bodhisattva to Buddha: The Beginning of Iconic Representation in Buddhist Art.” Artibus Asiae 54, no. 1/2 (1994).
  • Sharma, R. C. and P. Ghosal, eds. Buddhism and Gandhāra Art. New Delhi: Aryan Books International, 2004.
  • Srinivasan, D. M., ed. On the Cusp of an Era: Art in the Pre-Kuṣāṇa World. Leiden: Brill, 2007.
  • Stein, A. On Alexander’s Tracks to the Indus. London: Macmillan, 1929.
  • Zwalf, Wladimir. A Catalogue of the Gandhara Sculpture in the British Museum. 2 vols. London: The British Museum, 1996.

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