一。 Begin the unit with a class discussion of images that show people buying and selling in stores or markets. Gear the discussion toward questions about the markets and reasons for people to engage in trade. Here are some sample questions:
These questions are intended to bring the students into the context of this unit. Therefore, the brainstorm will work at the level of the students’ prior knowledge, using only language items they have learned previously (e.g. 店，市场，超市, 买东西，好玩). The new language items will be taught as the unit unfolds.
Tell the students that in this unit you will further investigate these questions by comparing markets in ancient times with those in modern times, identifying their similarities and differences, and noting the forces that have changed some markets and left others unchanged.
二。 Before class, provide the students with background on the painting “Going Upriver at Qingming Festival Time 《清明上河图》, and show the painting itself. If the students have done some background reading, use as many questions as possible to involve the students in the discussion. Introduce new words for the questions which students do not know how to answer in Chinese, using the associated flash cards.
Sample questions for discussion:
这张画是什么时候画的？ （北宋 960–1127）
三。 A Jigsaw Activity
Step 1: Divide the students into 4 groups, and assign one of the following guiding questions to each group:
1) In what time period does 《清明上河图》 take place? What is the season of 清明? Do you know any traditions that occur during 清明？
2) What city does the 《清明上河图》 describe? Where is this city in China?
3) What kind of the shops can you find in the 《清明上河图》? How does this painting tell the history of China’s market?
4) Who are the people we can see in the 《清明上河图》? Can you identify or describe some of them?
Step 2: Repeat the numbering around the class. Students work within their expert group. They will read, understand, and discuss the questions listed above.
Step 3: Students move around the class to find their instructional group. For example, all number ones will work together as one instructional group, all number twos, and so on. Each student will share the ideas generated by the question discussed in their expert group previously.
Guide the students to further explore the painting by identifying the special features they see in it. While talking, teach the students new words related to the following aspects of it:
很热闹：这张画里有814 个人， 20辆车，60个动物，20条船。
Call the students’ attention to the different forms of markets in the painting, such as stores and stalls. Have the students identify what might be sold there. Here are some suggested questions:
Use images of ancient markets to reinforce new words such as 集市，酒店，茶馆，货摊，地摊，货郎担.
Guide the students to discover various purposes for people to be at the market, such as shopping, socializing, and spending leisure time. Introduce new language items while talking.
卖东西，买东西， 做生意，赚钱，推车， 走路
和朋友说话， 和小孩子玩，看热闹， 喝茶，谈天
四。 Have a class discussion to exchange ideas and finalize Worksheet 1.
(download to print)
Possible answers for Worksheet 1:
Places for Merchandise
Products for Trading
Purposes for Going to Markets
Basic Human Needs
To close this section, assign the following reading about the painting: